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Competencies, therefore, are conceptualized as «know-how» that is applied to a variety of academic, social and professional contexts. For transfer to different contexts to be possible, an understanding of the knowledge present in the competencies, and the linking of this knowledge with the practical skills or abilities that integrate them, is indispensable.
Learning by competencies favors the learning processes themselves and the motivation to learn, due to the strong interrelation between its components: the concept is learned together with the procedure of learning said concept.
The key competences defined by the European Union are adopted. It is considered that «key competences are those that all people need for their personal fulfillment and development, as well as for active citizenship, social inclusion and employment». Seven key competences are identified as essential for the well-being of European societies, economic growth and innovation, and the essential knowledge, skills and attitudes linked to each of them are described.
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Gestalt enumerated several laws or principles related to perception that we should know for many reasons. Here we present those related to photography. In this page we will see the laws of Background and Figure, Similarity, Proximity, Closure, Continuity and Symmetry.
We tend to perceive objects and shapes that are close to each other as if they belong to the same group. Even if their shapes, colors and objects are radically different.
The principle of closure says that our brain has a tendency to «fill in the gaps» and gives us or imagines the missing details of a figure to complete or close it. Once the figure is closed we eliminate the unnecessary details and establish a pattern for the future.
The tendency we have to do this is triggered by the suggestion of a visual connection or continuity between elements that do not, in fact, touch in a composition. It is also known as the Law of Completion.
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1In his 2010 speech in Stockholm, the Peruvian writer Mario Vargas Llosa declared an interest in vindicating sequelae1. In fact, the Nobel laureate confessed that he had dedicated his entire life, from childhood to the present, to practicing the profession of continuator:
My mother told me that the first things I wrote were continuations of the stories I read because I was sorry to see them end or I wanted to amend the ending. And perhaps that is what I have spent my life doing without knowing it: prolonging in time, as I grew up, matured and aged, the stories that filled my childhood with exaltation and adventures2.
2Vargas Llosa summarizes the motives and procedures of the continuator with admirable concision: he creates alternative conclusions or alternatives to a first conclusion. In fact, the writer suggests that all writing is continuation and goes so far as to propose continuation as a fundamental metaphor for understanding the process of writing.
3Central to Vargas Llosa, continuation remains marginal to the Academy. For example, why are the fourth centenaries of Don Quixote and Guzmán commemorated in 2005 and 1999 and not in 2015 and 2004, the fourth centenaries of the second parts that give them their definitive form? What happened to the second parts? Faced with the «original», these second parts constitute the «other» of literature that we do not want to face. We don’t know what to call literary continuations, nor how to talk about them; we don’t know how they work; and we don’t know why people read them and authors write them. Now, because they represent the earliest and most intimate critique that literary texts receive, they compete with the kind of work we are trying to do. The aftermath threatens not only the authors of original texts but also their professional critics.
Medical prefixes and suffixes
It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Gestalt Psychology.Once you have done the content merge, request the history merge here.This notice was posted on December 8, 2020.
The figure is the area of perception on which consciousness is focused and the background is the rest of perception. The law states that it is not possible to simultaneously perceive the same area as figure and background, so there are always elements that the consciousness focuses on and elements that the consciousness ignores. When there is no such opposition in a literal way, the mind provokes it, by means of the content of the unconscious. Subliminal perception is the perception of the background that does not become a figure and therefore does not reach the consciousness, but influences the unconscious nonetheless. The perception of figure and background may depend on factors such as depth, distance and occlusion.  He discusses the partial or sequential grouping of elements carried out by the mind, based on distance. Attached objects tend to be seen as a unit. Stimuli that are close together tend to be perceived as part of the same units.